The following are quick comparison list of countries offering “Citizenship-by-investment” (CBI) vs “Residency-by-investment” (CBI) programs available to third nationals..

The key difference is “Citizenship-by-investment” programs offer investors direct passport to investors within few months or a year. “Residency-by-investment” aka “Golden visa” or “Investor visa” programs initially offer residency to investors, and then after certain number of years of living, it is possible to apply for the Citizenship and passport (indirect route) through naturalisation. The common route is residence permit converted to PR then PR later converted to citizenship.

Note: UK is not a schengen member country. The visas and residence permits issued by schengen countries to non-EU citizens, is not valid to travel to UK. Therefore a separate UK visa needed. Only EU citizens and EU passport holders can visit UK without visa.

Please use our new CBI Price calculator to compare prices and costs for CBI schemes

Country PassportMinimum InvestmentProgram NameProcessing TimeResidency by InvestmentReal Estate InvestmentBusiness InvestmentMinimum Stay RequirementsPermanent Residency (PR)Naturalisation Time for Citizenship (ordinary)Dual CitizenshipPassport Reputation (out of 10)
AustraliaA$ 1.5 millionSignificant Investor streamno standard processing timesyesyes40 days per yearAfter 4 yearsPR + 4 yearsyes9.4
(Residence scheme)
No official citizenship by investment exists3 monthsPossiblenoyes5 year10 yearsno9.6
Albania$100,000 opening in the future3 monthsTBAUnknown5yes7
Antigua & Barbuda$ 100,000 (donation)

$200,000 (real estate)

Citizenship by investment3 monthsnoyes (minimum $400,000)$1.5 millionno requirementyes8.5
Anguilla$750,000 (real estate) or $150,000 (donation)Anguilla Residence by Investment (ARBI)3 monthsyes$750Knone5 years 5 yearsyes
Bahamas$500,000Economic Investment PR4 monthsyesyesyesImmediate PR10 yearsno8.4
Bulgaria€ 200,000 (residency)

€1 million (fast track citizenship) closed

Immigrant investor program3 months yesnoyesImmediateAfter 5 yearsyes9.0
Barbados$2,000Digital Nomad Residence
Bangladesh$500,000Citizenship investmentUnknown$75,000Limited caes4.0
Canada (Quebec)CAD 1,200,000 or C$350,000 financing Immigrant Investor Program40 monthsyesnoyesImmediate3 yearsyes9.1
Cambodia$250,000 (cash donation) or $1.5m (business)Citizenship by InvestmentUnkownPossiblenoyesrequired7 yearsyes6.0
Costa Rica$10 million Investor visa
Croatia$100,000Business scheme3 months5 years10 yearsyes9.0
Cyprus€ 2,200,000 (real estate) closed

€300,000 Golden visa

Cypriot (EU) Citizenship by Investment6 months (Immediate passport)noyes€ 2 millionnoneImmediate8 yearsyes9.0
CzechiaNo limitsSignificant Investment3 monthsyesyes5 years8 yearsyes9.0
Denmarkno program exists6 years9 yearsyes9.6
Dominica$100,000 (donation)
$200,000 (real estate)
Citizenship by investment3 monthsno$200,000noneyes7.5
Estonia€1 millionMajor investor scheme2 months5 years8 yearsno9.2
Egypt$250,000 (donation) or $500,000 (real estate)Citizenship by Investment3 months10 yearsyes6
France€300,000 (Talent passport) for startupsInvestor Residence3 months5 years10 yearsyes9.6
Germany €50,000 Business residencyResidence by Investment3 monthsno€ 100,0005 years8 yearsno9.8
Grenada$150,000 (donation)

$220,000 (real estate)

Citizenship by investment3 monthsno$220,000noImmediateyes7.8
Greece€ 250,000 (real estate) or €400,000 (bank deposit or bonds)

No plans to open CBI scheme

Greece Golden visa3-4 monthsImmediate ResidencyyesnononeImmediate PR granted7 yearsyes9.3
Hungary€ 300,000 closedHungarian Residency Bonds (scheme closed from Mar 20, 2017)4-5 monthsImmediate ResidencynonononeImmediate PR8 yearsyes9.2
Hong KongHK$ 10 millionCapital Investment Scheme (suspended)3-5 monthsImmediate ResidencynoyesyesAfter 7 yearsno9.1
IcelandNo such program exists 4 years7 yearsyes9.2
IrelandIrish Immigrant Investor Program (IIP)€400,000 joint endowment or  €1,000,000 enterprise or €2 million (funds) or6 monthsImmediate Residencypossible€ 1 million1 dayImmediate Stamp 45 yearsyes9.5
Italy€250,000 startupsGolden visa2 monthsResidencyyesyes5 years10 yearsyes9.5
JapanInvestor visa ($50,000)Residency10 years5 yearsyes9.4
Jordan$1.5 million (bank deposit or bonds)Citizenship Investment scheme$250K real estate PRyes5.0
Malta €100,000 Malta Residency

€600,000  Malta citizenship by investment

Individual investor program (IIP) or Malta Residence Visa schemes2 months12 months for citizenship€ 350,000 (optional)nononeImmediate5 years (waived)yes9.5
Monaco (Monte Carlo)€ 1 millionInvestor visa3 monthsImmediate Residencyoptionalno limit6 months per year5 years10 yearsno9.9
Mauritius$350,000 (business or real estate) with fast track citizenship in 2 years.Golden visaPR for 20 years
Malaysia$125,000 (RM 500K)MM2H Residency2 monthsImmediate5 years10 yearsno8.0
Netherlands€ 1.25 million (startups or funds) Investor visa3 monthsImmediate Residencyyesyes5 years5 yearsno9.6
North Macedonia€200,000 investment donationCitizenship by Investment5 years8 yearsno7.0
Polandno program exists5 years8 yearsyes9.2
Portugal€ 280,000 (real estate)Portugal Golden visa3-4 monthsyesyes€ 1 million7 days per yearImmediate6 yearsyes9.6
Romania€1 million Citizenship after 4 years€100K Business  (Residence)2 months5 years8 yearsyes8.5
Russia$10 million or $160,000Simplified or Discretionary Naturalization onlyyesyes2 years year3-5 yearsyes7.0
Spain€500,000 (real estate)Spain Golden visa3-4 monthsyesyesnononeAfter 5 years10 yearsonly with spanish speaking countries9.5
Samoa$1.2 millionCitizenship Investment Programyes8.0
SwitzerlandCHF 1 million
Swiss Lump Sum Taxation3 monthsyesnoCHF 1 million turnoveryes10 years12 yearsyes9.8
St Lucia$100,000 (donation)
$300,000 (real estate)
Citizenship by investment2-3 monthsno$300,000$3.5 millionnoneyes7.9
Saint Kitts and Nevis$150,000 (Sustainable Growth Fund)

$200,000 (real estate)

Citizenship by investment3 monthsno$200,000noneyes8.3
Sloveniano limitsEconomic investor permit5 years10 yearsyes8.5
Slovakia€100 million and create 300 jobs

Citizenship on state’s interest

Major investor scheme2 years plus5 years8 yearsno9.2
Solomon islandscoming soonEconomic Citizenship Program
Thailand$15,000Elite Visa1 monthResidency5 years6 yearsYes7.0
United Kingdom (UK)GBP £2 million closed Investor visa (tier-1)1-3 weeksyesnoyes9 months per year for UK passport5 years6 yearsyes9.8
United States (U.S.A)$ 500,000EB-5 Investor visa15-20 monthsyesnoyes50% of time in US (2.5 out of 5 yrs)Immediate5 yearsyes9.7
Liechtensteinno program exists5 years30 yearsyes9.9
Latvia€100,000 (business) or €250,000 (real estate/ government bond)Latvia Golden visa4 monthsyes€250,000€80,000Immediate10 yearsyes9.4
Lithuania€250,000Business investment5 years10 yearsno9.3
Luxembourg€500,000Golden visa1 month5 years7 yearsyes9.5
New ZealandNZ$ 3 millionInvestor 1 and 2 scheme3-4 monthsImmediate ResidencyPossibleyes146 days per year2 years5 yearsyes9.6
Norwayno program exists3 years7 yearsno9.6
Poland€100,000 business investment5 years10 yearsyes9.4
Panama$300,000Real Estate2 monthsImmediate Residency (PR)yesyes5 years7.9
Serbiaunknown5 yearsyes8.6
Swedenno program exists5 years5 yearsyes9.8
South KoreaInvestor visa ($250,000)F5 PRyesno limit5 years5 yearsyes9.2
SingaporeSG$ 2.5 million (approx US$ 2 million)Global Investor Program (GIP)2 monthsyesnoyesImmediate Permanent Residency2-6 years with PRno9.2
Vanuatu$130,000 (donation) Citizenship by InvestmentVanuatu Development Support Program (DSP/VCP)1.5 monthsyes7.2
Moldova€100,000 MCBI launched in 2018 closedsuspended currently10 yearsyes8
Montenegro€350,000  (real estate)


Special Citizenship by Investment1 month€5m hotels,  €2m agricultureImmediate10 yearsyes8.2
Turkey$250,000 (real estate) or $500,000 in Govt Bonds, bank depositTurkish Citizenship by investment (TCBI)3 monthsImmediate 5 yearsyes7.0
United Arab EmiratesGolden Visa $250,000Property investmentyes8.5

The table was prepared assuming you are Non-EU/EEA foreign national who wish to immigrate. Please note that most european country passports require electronic registration prior to visiting USA. Please check with the US embassy. Naturalisation time is total number of years spent living (inclusive of PR). Some countries require PR status before applying for Citizenship through naturalisation.