The following are quick comparison list of countries offering “Citizenship-by-investment” (CBI) vs “Residency-by-investment” (CBI) programs to third nationals of various countries.

The key difference is “Citizenship-by-investment” programs offer investors direct passport to investors within few months or a year. “Residency-by-investment” aka “Golden visa” or “Investor visa” programs initially offer residency to investors, and then after certain number of years of living, it is possible to apply for the Citizenship and passport (indirect route) through naturalisation. The common route is residence permit converted to PR then PR later converted to citizenship.

Note: UK is not a schengen member country. The visas and residence permits issued by schengen countries to non-EU citizens, is not valid to travel to UK. Therefore a separate UK visa needed. Only EU citizens and EU passport holders can visit UK without visa.

Please use our new tool to compare prices and costs for CBI schemes:

Country PassportMinimum InvestmentProgram NameProcessing TimeResidency by InvestmentReal Estate InvestmentBusiness InvestmentMinimum Stay RequirementsPermanent Residency (PR)Naturalisation Time for CitizenshipDual CitizenshipPassport Reputation (out of 10)
AustraliaA$ 1.5 millionInvestor stream4 monthsyesyes40 days per yearAfter 4 yearsPR + 4 yearsyes9.4
(Residence scheme)
No official citizenship by investment existsPossiblenoyes5 year10 yearsno9.6
Antigua & Barbuda$ 100,000Citizenship by investment3 monthsnoyes (minimum $400,000)$1.5 millionno requirementyes8.5
Bahamas$500,000Economic Investment PR4 monthsyesyesyesImmediate PR10 yearsno8.4
Bulgaria€ 512,000 (residency)

€1 million (citizenship)

Investor visa7 months yesnoyesImmediateAfter 5 yearsyes9.0
Canada (Quebec)CAD 1,200,000 Quebec Immigrant Investor Program6 monthsyesnoyes2 years3 yearsyes9.1
5 years10 yearsyes9.4
Costa Rica$10 million Investor visa
Croatia$100,000Business scheme5 years10 yearsyes9.0
Cyprus€ 2.15 million (real estate)Cypriot (EU) Citizenship by Investment6 months (Immediate passport)noyes€ 5 millionnone5 years8 yearsyes9.0
Denmarkno program exists6 years9 yearsyes9.6
Dominica$ 100,000Citizenship by investment8-10 monthsno$200,000noneyes7.5
Estonia€1 millionMajor investor scheme4 months5 years8 yearsno9.2
France€300,000 (Talent passport)Investor Residence3 months5 years10 yearsyes9.6
Germany€300,000 real estate or €100,000 BusinessResidence by Investment3 monthsno€ 100,0005 years8 yearsno9.8
Grenada$ 150,000Citizenship by investment3 monthsno$220,000noyes7.8
Greece€ 250,000 (real estate)Greece Golden visa3-4 monthsImmediate ResidencyyesnononeImmediate PR granted7 yearsyes9.3
Hungary€ 300,000 closedHungarian Residency Bonds (scheme closed from Mar 20, 2017)4-5 monthsImmediate ResidencynonononeImmediate PR8 yearsyes9.2
Hong KongHK$ 10 millionCapital Investment Scheme (suspended)3-5 monthsImmediate ResidencynoyesyesAfter 7 yearsno9.1
IcelandNo such program exists 4 years7 yearsyes9.2
IrelandIrish Immigrant Investor Program (IIP)€500,000 endowment or  €1,000,000 enterprise or €2 million (Bonds) or3 monthsImmediate Residencypossible€ 1 million5 years5 yearsyes9.5
Italy€500,000 startupsGolden visa2 monthsResidencyyesyes5 years10 yearsyes9.5
JapanInvestor visa ($50,000)10 years5 yearsyes9.4
Malta €250,000 (Malta Residency Visa)

€900K IIP citizenship scheme

Individual investor program (IIP) or Malta Residence Visa schemes3 months12 months for citizenship€ 350,000 (optional)nonone5 years (waived)5 years (waived)yes9.5
Monaco (Monte Carlo)€ 1 millionInvestor visa3 monthsImmediate Residencyoptionalno limit6 months per year5 years10 yearsno9.9
Malaysia$125,000 (RM 500K)MM2H Residency2 monthsImmediate5 years10 yearsno8.0
Netherlands€ 1.25 million Investor visa3 monthsImmediate Residencyyesyes5 years5 yearsno9.6
Polandno program exists5 years8 yearsyes9.2
Portugal€ 350,000Portugal Golden visa3-4 monthsyesyes€ 1 million7 days per yearAfter 5 years6 yearsyes9.6
Romania€1m Citizenship after 2 years€100K Business  (Residence)5 years8 yearsyes9.0
Russia$ 300,000pendingyesyes2 years year3-5 yearsyes7.0
Spain€500,000 (real estate)Spain Golden visa3-4 monthsyesyesnononeAfter 5 years10 yearsonly with spanish speaking countries9.5
SwitzerlandCHF 1 million
Swiss Lump Sum Taxation3 monthsyesnoCHF 1 million turnoveryes10 years12 yearsyes9.8
St Lucia$100,000Citizenship by investment2-3 monthsno$300,000$3.5 millionnoneyes7.9
Saint Kitts and Nevis$150,000 (Sustainable Growth Fund)Citizenship by investment3 monthsno$200,000noneyes8.3
Sloveniano limitsEconomic investor permit5 years10 yearsyes8.5
Slovakia€100 millionSignificant investor3 months5 years8 yearsyes8.5
Thailand$15,000Elite Visa1 monthResidency5 years6 yearsYes7.0
United Kingdom (UK)GBP 2 million Investor visa (tier-1)2 monthsyesnoyes9 months per year for UK passport5 years6 yearsyes9.8
United States (U.S.A)$ 900,000 – $1.8 million from Nov 21EB-5 Investor visa10 monthsyesnoyes50% of time in US (2.5 out of 5 yrs)Immediate5 yearsyes9.7
Liechtensteinno program exists5 years30 yearsyes9.9
Latvia€100,000 (business) or €250,000 (real estate/ government bond)Latvia Golden visa4 monthsyes€250,000€80,0005 years10 yearsyes9.4
Lithuania€250,000Business investment5 years10 yearsno9.3
Luxembourg€500,000Golden visa5 years7 yearsyes9.5
New ZealandNZ$ 3 millionInvestor 1 and 2 scheme3-4 monthsImmediate ResidencyPossibleyes146 days per year2 years5 yearsyes9.6
Norwayno program exists3 years7 yearsno9.6
Polandno program exists5 years10 yearsyes9.4
Panama$300,000Real EstateImmediate Residency (PR)yesyes5 years7.9
Serbiano program exists5 yearsyes8.6
Swedenno program exists5 years5 yearsyes9.8
South KoreaInvestor visa ($250,000)F5 PRyesno limit5 yearsyes9.2
SingaporeSG$ 2.5 million (approx US$ 2 million)Global Investor Program (GIP)yesnoyesImmediate Permanent Residency2-6 years with PRno9.2
Slovakia€100 million create 300 jobsMajor investor permit5 years8 years
Vanuatu$130,000 Citizenship by InvestmentVanuatu Development Support Program (DSP)1.5 monthsyes7.2
Moldova€100,000 MCBI launched in 2018suspended currently10 yearsyes8
Montenegro€350,000 Now open


Special Citizenship by Investment10 yearsyes8.2
Turkey$250,000 (real estate) or $500,000 in Bonds, bank depositCitizenship by investment4 monthsyes7.0

The table was prepared assuming you are Non-EU/EEA foreign national who wish to immigrate. Please note that most european country passports require electronic registration prior to visiting USA. Please check with the US embassy. Naturalisation time is total number of years spent living (inclusiv of PR). Some countries require PR status before applying for Citizenship through naturalisation.