The following are quick comparison list of countries offering “Citizenship-by-investment” (CBI) vs “Residency-by-investment” (CBI) programs to third nationals of various countries.

The key difference is “Citizenship-by-investment” programs offer investors direct passport to investors within few months or a year. “Residency-by-investment” aka “Golden visa” or “Investor visa” programs initially offer residency to investors, and then after certain number of years of living, it is possible to apply for the Citizenship and passport (indirect route) through naturalisation. The common route is residence permit converted to PR then PR later converted to citizenship.

Note: UK is not a schengen member country. The visas and residence permits issued by schengen countries to non-EU citizens, is not valid to travel to UK. Therefore a separate UK visa needed. Only EU citizens and EU passport holders can visit UK without visa.

 

Country Passport Minimum Investment Program Name Processing Time Residency by Investment Real Estate Investment Business Investment Minimum Stay Requirements Permanent Residency (PR) Naturalisation Time for Citizenship Dual Citizenship Passport Reputation (out of 10)
Australia A$ 1.5 million Investor stream 4 months yes yes 40 days per year After 4 years PR + 4 years yes 9.4
Antigua & Barbuda $ 100,000 (Nov 1, 2017 onwards) Citizenship by investment 3 months no yes (minimum $400,000) $1.5 million no requirement yes 8.5
Bahamas $500,000 Economic Investment PR 4 months yes yes yes Immediate PR 10 years no 8.4
Bulgaria € 512,000 Investor visa 7 months  yes no yes Immediate After 5 years yes 9.0
Canada (Quebec) CAD 1,200,000 Quebec Immigrant Investor Program
5 years 10 years yes 9.4
Costa Rica $10 million Investor visa
Croatia no program exists 5 years 10 years yes 9.0
Cyprus € 2 million (real estate) Cypriot (EU) Citizenship by Investment 3 months (Immediate passport) no yes € 5 million none 5 years 8 years yes 9.0
Denmark no program exists 6 years 9 years yes 9.6
Dominica $ 100,000 Citizenship by investment 8-10 months no $200,000 none yes 7.5
Estonia no program exists 5 years 8 years no 9.2
France Startup visa 5 years 10 years yes 9.6
Germany no program exists no 4 months no € 250,000 5 years 8 years yes 9.8
Grenada $ 150,000 Citizenship by investment 3 months no $350,000 no yes 7.8
Greece € 250,000 (real estate) Greece Golden visa 3-4 months Immediate Residency yes no none Immediate PR granted 7 years yes 9.3
Hungary € 300,000 closed Hungarian Residency Bonds (scheme closed from Mar 20, 2017) 4-5 months Immediate Residency no no none Immediate PR 8 years yes 9.2
Hong Kong HK$ 10 million Capital Investment Scheme (suspended) 3-5 months Immediate Residency no yes yes After 7 years no 9.1
Iceland No such program exists   4 years 7 years yes 9.2
Ireland Irish Immigrant Investor Program €1,000,000 enterprise or €2 million (Bonds) or 3 months Immediate Residency possible € 1 million 5 years 5 years yes 9.5
Italy €500,000 million Golden visa 2 months Residency yes yes 5 years 10 years yes 9.5
Japan Investor visa 10 years 5 years yes 9.4
Malta Approx € 900,000 (citizenship) or €250,000 Bonds  for Residency

EU Citizenship

Malta Individual Investor Program (MIIP) 3 months no € 350,000 (optional) no none 5 years (waived) 5 years (waived) yes 9.5
Monaco (Monte Carlo) € 1 million Investor visa 3 months Immediate Residency optional no limit 6 months per year 5 years 10 years no 9.9
Netherlands € 1.25 million Dutch Investor visa 3 months Immediate Residency yes yes 5 years 5 years no 9.6
Poland no program exists 5 years 8 years yes 9.2
Portugal € 350,000 Portugal Golden visa 3-4 months yes yes € 1 million 7 days per year After 5 years 6 years yes 9.6
Romania 5 years 8 years yes 9.0
Russia $ 300,000 pending yes yes 2 years year 3-5 years yes 7.0
Spain €500,000 (real estate) Spanish Golden visa 3-4 months yes yes no none After 5 years 10 years only with spanish speaking countries 9.5
Switzerland CHF 1 million
Swiss Lump Sum Taxation 3 months yes no CHF 1 million turnover yes 10 years 12 years yes 9.8
St Lucia $100,000 from Jan 2017 Citizenship by investment 2-3 months no $300,000 $3.5 million none yes 7.9
Saint Kitts and Nevis $150,000 (Sustainable Growth Fund 2018) Citizenship by investment 8 months no $400,000 none yes 8.3
Slovenia no program exists 5 years 10 years yes
Slovakia no program exists 5 years 13 years yes
United Kingdom (UK) GBP 200,000 or GBP 2 million UK Entrepreneur or Investor visa (tier-1) 2 months yes no yes 9 months per year for UK passport 5 years 6 years yes 9.8
United States (U.S.A) $ 500,000 – 1 million EB-5 Investor visa 10 months yes no yes 50% of time in US (2.5 out of 5 yrs) Immediate 5 years yes 9.7
Liechtenstein no program exists 5 years 30 years yes 9.9
Latvia €100,000 (business) or €250,000 (real estate/ government bond) Latvia Golden visa 4 months yes €250,000 €80,000 5 years 10 years yes 9.4
Lithuania no program exists 5 years 10 years 9.3
Luxembourg €500,000 Investor visa 5 years 7 years yes 9.5
New Zealand NZ$ 3 million Business Investor Visa 3-4 months Immediate Residency Possible yes 146 days per year 2 years 5 years yes 9.6
Norway no program exists 3 years 7 years no 9.6
Poland no program exists 5 years 10 years yes 9.4
Panama $300,000 Real Estate Immediate Residency (PR) yes yes 5 years 7.9
Serbia no program exists 5 years yes 8.6
Sweden no program exists 5 years 5 years yes 9.8
South Korea Investor visa ($250,000) F5 PR yes no limit 5 years yes 9.2
Singapore SG$ 2.5 million (approx US$ 2 million) Global Investor Program (GIP) yes no yes Immediate Permanent Residency 2-6 years with PR no 9.2
Vanuatu $160,000 Citizenship by Investment Vanuatu Development Support Program (DSP) yes 7.2
Moldova $100,000 MCBI launched in 2018 Citizenship by Investment 10 years yes 8
Montenegro €250,000

 

Special Citizenship by Investment 10 years yes 8.2
United States $500,000 EB-5 5 years yes 9.1
Turkey $250,000 (real estate) or $500,000 in Bonds or deposit Citizenship by investment yes 7.0

 

The table was prepared assuming you are Non-EU/EEA foreign national who wish to immigrate. Please note that most european country passports require electronic registration prior to visiting USA. Please check with the US embassy. Naturalisation time is total number of years spent living (inclusiv of PR). Some countries require PR status before applying for Citizenship through naturalisation.